IFOAM BASIC STANDARDS
IFOAM homepage

Basic Standards Overview


Basic Standards

for

Organic Production and Processing

decided by the IFOAM General Assembly

in BASEL, Switzerland, September 2000

Contents

About IFOAM
IFOAM Organisation Chart


Section A General

Definitions


Section B General Principles, Recommendations and Standards

Section C Appendices


About IFOAM

Organic agriculture includes all agricultural systems that promote the environmentally, socially and economically sound production of food and fibres. These systems take local soil fertility as a key to successful production. By respecting the natural capacity of plants, animals and the landscape, it aims to optimise quality in all aspects of agriculture and the environment. Organic agriculture dramatically reduces external inputs by refraining from the use of chemo-synthetic fertilisers, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. Instead it allows the powerful laws of nature to increase both agricultural yields and disease resistance. Organic agriculture adheres to globally accepted principles, which are implemented within local social-economic, geoclimatical and cultural settings. As a logical consequence, IFOAM stresses and supports the development of self-supporting systems on local and regional levels.

IFOAM's Mission

We represent the worldwide movement of organic agriculture and provide a platform for

global exchange and co-operation.

• We are committed to a holistic approach in the development of organic farming systems

including a sustainable environment and the needs of humanity.

• By the expertise of its members IFOAM opens the way for implementation of above aims in

every day's life.

The federation's main function is co-ordinating the network of the organic movement around the world. IFOAM is a democratic federation and grassroot oriented. Major activities within IFOAM are carried out by our World Board, various committees, working groups and task forces.

Major aims and activities are:

• To exchange knowledge and expertise among its members and to inform the public about organic agriculture.

• To represent internationally the organic movement in parliamentary, administrative and policy making forums (IFOAM has for example consultative status with the UNO and FAO).

• To set and regularly revise the international "IFOAM Basic Standards of Organic Agriculture and Food Processing" (these IFOAM Basic Standards are translated into 19 languages!).

• To make an international guarantee of organic quality a reality. The International Organic Accreditation Services (IOAS) runs the IFOAM Accreditation Programme, to ensures equivalency of certification programmes worldwide.

What IFOAM has to offer:

IFOAM offers many platforms for information exchange e.g. at the numerous international, continental and regional IFOAM conferences, or through our publications such as the magazine Ecology & Farming and conference proceedings. Our increasing international outreach activities give the organic movement a voice and influence which can no longer be ignored by those responsible for agricultural policy.

Through our directory "Organic Agriculture Worldwide", and also through our network of international contacts, we can link you with the partners you are looking for in any area of organic agriculture.

As the worldwide organic movement has now progressed beyond being a niche production and market situation, therefore further growth and extension of our network and partnerships are essential. There are many ways to join the IFOAM partnership and to contribute to, and benefit from our worldwide movement and network.

Some benefits for IFOAM members and associates:

IFOAM membership is open to associations of producers, processors, traders and consultants as well as to institutions involved in certification, research and training committed to organic agriculture. Organisations or private companies not predominantly organic and individuals which subscribe to the aims and principles of organic agriculture may join IFOAM as either associates or supporters. Some of the benefits for members and associates are:

• Subscription for one of the IFOAM's magazines (English or German) including the Internal Letter

• Discount at IFOAM conferences • 20 % discount on IFOAM's publications

• Listing in IFOAM Directory and free copy • Free copy of the IFOAM Basic Standards

IFOAM ORGANIsation chart

section A General

 

Scope of the IFOAM Basic Standards

The Basic Standards reflect the current state of organic production and processing methods. These standards should not be seen as a final statement, but rather as a work in progress to contribute to the development of organic farming throughout the world.

The IFOAM Basic Standards cannot be used for certification on their own. They provide a framework for certification bodies/ standardising organisations world-wide to develop their own certification standards. These will take into account local conditions and may well be more detailed than the IFOAM Basic Standards.

When products are sold on the market using an organic label, the producer and processors must work within, and be certified by certification bodies, according to standards which meet or exceed the IFOAM Basic Standards. This requires a system of regular inspection and certification. Such certification will ensure the credibility of organic products and help to build consumer trust.

The requirements of the IFOAM Basic Standards shall be implemented by certification bodies/ standardising organisations. However, requirements that are not relevant for the conditions under which the standards are used do not need to be incorporated.

The IFOAM Basic standards are also used in the IFOAM Accreditation process. In evaluating a certification body for IFOAM Accreditation, The International Organic Accreditation Service evaluates the standards used against the IFOAM Basic Standards, and the certifiers’ performance against the IFOAM Accreditation Criteria.

Structure

The IFOAM Basic Standards are presented as General Principles, Recommendations and Standards. The General principles are the goals organic production and processing works towards. The Recommendations provide standards which IFOAM promotes but does not require. The Standards are the minimum requirements which must be fully incorporated into certification standards. Current derogations are printed in italics.

Revision of the Basic Standards

The IFOAM Basic Standards (IBS) are developed by the IFOAM Standards Committee (SC) in close co-operation and consultation with the IFOAM member organisations and other interested parties.

The General Assembly in Basel, September 2000, decided to install a new Procedure for revision of standards, confirmed the procedure regarding the presentation of standards related motions and approved the Procedure for urgent standard revision. Following the approved procedures:

Procedure for revision of standards

The General Assembly and the World Board may instruct the SC to put issues on the work programme for standards revision.

Members can ask for issues to be put on the work programme of the SC.

For each revision the SC shall present a plan for the revision, subject to the approval of the World Board/Executive Board.

The SC may choose to revise new areas, or areas significantly revised, of the IBS independently from the revision of the main body of the standards.

SC proposed standards changes, or new standards proposals, will be circulated to the membership normally in a minimum of two drafts for consideration and comment. Special consideration will be given to opinions on the standards from the IOAS and Accredited Certification Bodies or other IFOAM bodies representing special expertise. In addition to the circulation to the membership, circulation will be done to relevant non-IFOAM members, regulatory bodies, international environmental and consumer organisations, and UN organs. Drafts will further be available for anybody asking for them.

In addition to this procedure there may be the possibilities to further enhance the consultation by calling a special standards conference or installing focus groups to deal with specific aspects of the standards.

The SC will review the comments and take due consideration of the suggestions. The final recommendation for standards changes will be submitted to the World Board, with a summary of the most critical issues and the SC's rationale for its proposal.

Approved by the General Assembly in Basel 2000.

Standards motions at the IFOAM General Assembly

(part of § 5 of the Rules of Procedure for the General Assembly, approved in Basel, September 2000)

 

Procedure for urgent standards revision

Purpose

Considering the fast development and the regulatory function of the IFOAM Basic Standards in relationship to accreditation there are situations where the need for a revision of the IFOAM BS warrants that the normal procedures for standards revisions (as outlined in the policy for standards revision) are set aside. Therefore an "urgent standards revision procedure" is installed.

Policy

The IFOAM World Board (WB) is authorised to invoke and complete an urgent standards revision based on the following:

In all cases the matter shall have such urgency that it couldn’t be handled through the normal standards revision procedure.

Issues that have been under clear debate during the latest standard revision process cannot normally be considered under this procedure, unless important new arguments/evidence are brought forward.

Procedures

The procedure can be invoked on the request of the Standards Committee or the International Organic Accreditation Services (IOAS).

The proposal shall be submitted to the WB. The WB will first determine if the matter is of such an urgency, that it should be dealt with by the special procedure for urgent standard revision. When assessing this, the WB shall use the policy outlined above.

Any such proposal shall be posted in the Internal Letter for public comment, and put to consultation to relevant IFOAM bodies. Any party shall have at least 6 weeks to reply to the proposal and deadlines shall be indicated. Replies shall be communicated to the SC that shall make a final recommendation to the WB.

The WB, when initiating the process, shall decide whether the final decision can be taken by the Executive Board, and under which conditions. The decision must be approved by 2/3rds majority.

The implementation procedure will be clearly defined by the WB.

The WB shall report the use of the urgent standards revision procedure to the General Assembly. Any standards revision resulting from the use of this policy will be confirmed according to the normal standards confirmation procedures, to be approved by the following General Assembly.

This policy was temporarily approved by the IFOAM World Board, October 1999, revised by the World Board in February 2000

and finally approved by the General Assembly in Basel 2000.

 

Draft standards

Standards in new areas may be classified as draft standards to enable certification bodies/ standardising organisations to try them before final adoption. Certification bodies are not obliged to follow draft standards.

Revision of Draft standards follows the Procedure for revision of standards.

Reporting incompatible standards

In instances where the IFOAM Basic Standards might prove incompatible with national or other legislation, certification bodies/ standardising organisations should report this to the IFOAM Standards Committee.

Variations in standards

Introduction

Organic agriculture is based on a close interaction between humans, agriculture and the local ecological conditions. Therefore, organic agriculture can be implemented differently in different areas. To a certain extent this principle also applies to how inspection and certification shall carried out (e.g. grower group certification). It is a delicate balance to combine this need for regional variations with the international harmonisation that is necessary for trade, fair competition and consumer trust in organic. IFOAM is committed to develop its own guarantee system in such a way that it endeavours to achieve this balance.

The world wide proliferation of standards has certain disadvantages as it consume a lot of resources, has the potential of creating trade barriers and may confuse interested parties. At the same time the development of standards is a major achievement of the organic movement and represents a consensus building process that is valuable. National or regional standards are often a way for the organic movement to achieve respect and acceptance.

Policy on Variation in Standards

1.The IFOAM Basic Standards contain the guidelines and principles required to set standards in compliance with IFOAM Basic Standards (standards for standards). There shall only be one IFOAM standard.

2. IFOAM supports the establishment of voluntary consensus national or regional standards, based on the IFOAM Basic Standards, for use by multiple certification bodies.

3. IFOAM supports the concept of regional variations while in the same time acknowledging the need for harmonisation. In order to achieve this IFOAM will:

Approved by the General Assembly in Basel, September 2000

Basic Standards Content Page

Definitions

Additive

An enrichment, supplement or other substance which may be added to a foodstuff to affect its keeping quality, consistency, colour, taste, smell or other technical property (For full definition, see Codex Alimentarius).

Ayurvedic

Traditional Indian medicine.

Breeding

Selection of plants or animals to reproduce and / or to further develop desired characteristics in succeeding generations.

Buffer zone

A clearly defined and identifiable boundary area bordering an organic production site that is established to limit application of, or contact with, prohibited substances from an adjacent area.

Certification

The procedure by which an independent third party gives written assurance that a clearly identified production or processing system is methodically assessed and conforms to specified requirements.

Certification mark

A certification body’s sign, symbol or logo which identifies product(s) as being certified according to that programmes’ standards.

Certification programme

System operated by a certification body with its own rules, procedures and management for carrying out certification of conformity.

Conventional

Conventional means any material, production or processing practice that is not certified organic or organic "in-conversion".

 

Crop rotation

The practice of alternating the species or families of annual and/or biennial crops grown on a specific field in a planned pattern or sequence so as to break weed, pest and disease cycles and to improve soil fertility and organic matter content.

Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering is a set of techniques from molecular biology (such as recombinant DNA) by which the genetic material of plants, animals, micro-organisms, cells and other biological units may be altered in ways or with results that could not be obtained by methods of natural reproduction or natural recombination.

Green manure

A crop that is incorporated into the soil for the purpose of soil improvement.

Homeopathic treatment

Treatment of disease based on administration of remedies prepared through dilution and succession of a substance that in larger amounts produces symptoms in healthy animals similar to those of the disease itself.

IFOAM accreditation

Recognition by the International Organic Accreditation Service that a certification body is complying with the IFOAM Basic Standards and IFOAM Accreditation Criteria.

Ingredient

Any substance, including a food additive, used in the manufacture or preparation of a food or present in the final product although possibly in a modified form.

Irradiation (ionising radiation)

High energy emissions from radio nucleotides, capable of altering a food’s molecular structure for the purpose of controlling microbial contaminants, pathogens, parasites and pests in food, preserving food or inhibiting physiological processes such as sprouting or ripening.

Labelling

Any written, printed or graphic representation that is present on the label of a product, accompanies the product, or is displayed near the product.

Natural fibres

A filament of plant or animal origin that is not synthetic.

Organic

"Organic" refers to the farming system and products described in these standards and not to "organic chemistry".

Organic product

A product which has been produced, processed, and/or handled in compliance with organic standards.

Parallel production

A producer, handler, or processor that grows, breeds, raises, handles, or processes a given product as certified organic and as otherwise. This includes (a) as non-organic, (b) in conversion or (c) organic but not certified.

Processing aid

Any substance or material, not including apparatus or utensils, and not consumed as a food ingredient by itself, intentionally used in the processing of raw materials, foods or its ingredients, to fulfil a certain technological purpose during treatment or processing and which may result in the non-intentional, but unavoidable presence of residues or derivatives in the final product.

section B General principles,

Recommendations and Standards

     

    Basic Standards Content Page

  1. The Principle Aims of Organic Production and Processing

Organic Production and Processing is based on a number of principles and ideas. They are all important and are not necessarily listed here in order of importance.

 

Basic Standards Content Page

2. Genetic Engineering

General Principles

Genetic engineering has no place in organic production and processing

.

Standards

2.1.

Certification bodies/ standardising organisations shall set standards and make every effort including relevant documentation to ensure that no genetically engineered organisms or products thereof are used in organic production and processing.

 

For definition of genetic engineering, see the Definitions section.

Basic Standards Content Page

3. Crop Production and Animal Husbandry in General

 

3.1. Conversion Requirements

General Principles

Organic agriculture is a process which develops a viable and sustainable agro-ecosystem.

 

Recommendations

For a sustainable agro-ecosystem to function optimally, diversity in crop production and animal husbandry must be arranged in such a way that all the elements of the farming management interplay.

Conversion may be accomplished over a period of time. A farm may be converted step by step.

The totality of the crop production and all animal husbandry should be converted to organic management.

There should be a clear plan of how to proceed with the conversion. This plan shall be updated if necessary and should cover all aspects relevant to these standards.

The certification bodies/ standardising organisations should set standards for how different farming systems can be clearly separated in production as well as in documentation, and the standards should determine how to prevent a mix up of input factors and products.

 

Standards

3.1.1.

The standards requirements shall be met during the conversion period. All the standards requirements shall be applied on the relevant aspects from the beginning of the conversion period onward.

3.1.2.

Before products from a farm/project can be certified as organic, inspection shall have been carried out during the conversion period. The start of the conversion period may be calculated from the date of application to the certification bodies/ standardising organisations or from the date of last application of unapproved farm inputs providing it can be demonstrated that standards requirements have been met from that date.

For the length of conversion periods, please refer to sections 4.2. and 5.2.

3.1.3.

A full conversion period is not required where de facto full standards requirements have been met for several years and where this can be verified through numerous means and sources. In such cases inspection shall be carried out with a reasonable time interval before the first harvest.

 

3.2. Parallel Production

General Principles

The whole farm, including livestock, should be converted according to the standards over a period of time.

Recommendations

The certification body/ standardising organisation should set standards for how different farming systems can be clearly separated in production as well as in documentation, and the standards should determine how to prevent a mix up of input factors and products.

 

Standards

3.2.1.

If the whole farm is not converted, the certification body/ standardising organisation shall ensure that the organic and conventional parts of the farm are separate and inspectable.

3.2.2.

Simultaneous production of conventional, in conversion and/or organic crops or animal products is only allowed where such production is clearly distinguished.

3.2.3.

To ensure a clear separation between organic and conventional production, the certification body/ standardising organisation shall inspect the whole system (from production to final market). See IFOAM Accreditation Criteria.

3.2.4.

On farms with simultaneous organic and conventional production the use of genetically engineered organisms is not permitted on the conventional part.

 

3.3. Maintenance of the Organic Management

General Principles

Organic certification is based on an ongoing commitment to organic production practices.

 

Recommendations

The certification body/ standardising organisation should only certify production which is likely to be maintained on a long-term basis.

 

Standards

3.3.1.

Converted land and animals shall not get switched back and forth between organic and conventional management.

 

3.4. Landscape/Farmscape

General Principles

Organic farming should contribute beneficially to the ecosystem.

 

Recommendations

Areas which should be managed properly and linked to facilitate biodiversity:

The certification body/ standardising organisation should set standards for a minimum percentage of the farm area to facilitate biodiversity and nature conservation.

 

Standards

3.4.1.

The certification body’s/ standardising organisation’s standards shall include relevant measures for the provision and improvement of landscape and biodiversity.

 

4. Crop Production

4.1.  Choice of Crops and Varieties

General Principles

All seeds and plant material should be certified organic.

 

Recommendations

Species and varieties cultivated should be adapted to the soil and climatic conditions and be resistant to pests and diseases.

In the choice of varieties genetic diversity should be taken into consideration.

 

Standards

4.1.1.

When organic seed and plant materials are available, they shall be used. The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set time limits for the requirement of certified organic seed and other plant material.

4.1.2.

When certified organic seed and plant materials are not available, chemically untreated conventional materials shall be used.

Where no other alternatives are available chemically treated seed and plant material may be used. The certification body/ standardising organisation shall define conditions for exemptions and set time limits for any use of chemical treated seeds and plant materials.

4.1.3.

The use of genetically engineered seeds, pollen, transgene plants or plant material is not allowed.

 

4.2. Length of Conversion Period

General Principles

The establishment of an organic management system and building of soil fertility requires an interim period, the conversion period. The conversion period may not always be of sufficient duration to improve soil fertility and re-establish the balance of the ecosystem but it is the period in which all the actions required to reach these goals are started.

Recommendations

The length of the conversion period must be adapted to:

 

Standards

4.2.1.

Plant products from annual production can be certified organic when the Standards requirements have been met for a minimum of twelve months before the start of the production cycle. Perennial plants (excluding pastures and meadows) can be certified organic at the first harvest after at least eighteen months of management according to the Standards requirements.

Pastures, meadows and their products can be certified after 12 months of organic management.

Where the certification body/ standardising organisation requires a period of three or more years of documented non-use of prohibited materials, certification may be granted twelve months after application.

4.2.2.

The conversion period can be extended by the certification body/ standardising organisation depending on e.g. past use of the land and environmental conditions.

4.2.3.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may allow plant products to be sold as "produce of organic agriculture in process of conversion" or a similar description, when the Standards requirements have been met for at least twelve months.

 

4.3.  Diversity in Crop Production

General Principles

The basis for crop production in gardening, farming and forestry is consideration of the structure and fertility of the soil and surrounding ecosystem and to provide a diversity of species while minimising nutrient losses.

Recommendations

Diversity in crop production is achieved by a combination of:

 

Standards

4.3.1.

Where appropriate, the certification body/ standardising organisation shall require that sufficient diversity is obtained in time or place in a manner that takes into account pressure from insects, weeds, diseases and other pests, while maintaining or increasing soil, organic matter, fertility, microbial activity and general soil health. For non-perennial crops, this is normally, but not exclusively, achieved by means of crop rotation.

 

4.4.  Fertilisation Policy

General Principles

Sufficient quantities of biodegradable material of microbial, plant or animal origin should be returned to the soil to increase or at least maintain its fertility and the biological activity within it.

Biodegradable material of microbial, plant or animal origin produced on organic farms should form the basis of the fertilisation programme.

 

Recommendations

Fertilisation management should minimise nutrient losses.

Accumulation of heavy metals and other pollutants should be prevented.

Non synthetic mineral fertilisers and brought in fertilisers of biological origin should be regarded as supplementary and not a replacement for nutrient recycling.

Adequate pH levels should be maintained in the soil.

 

Standards

4.4.1.

Biodegradable material of microbial, plant or animal origin shall form the basis of the fertilisation programme.

4.4.2.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set limitations to the total amount of biodegradable material of microbial, plant or animal origin brought onto the farm unit, taking into account local conditions and the specific nature of the crops.

4.4.3.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set standards which prevent animal runs from becoming overmanured where there is a risk of pollution.

4.4.4.

Brought-in material shall be in accordance with Appendices 1 and 2.

4.4.5.

Manures containing human excrement (faeces and urine) shall not be used on vegetation for human consumption, except where all sanitation requirements are met. Certification body/ standardising organisation shall establish sanitation requirements and procedures shall be in place, which prevent transmission of pests, parasites and infectious agents.

4.4.6.

Mineral fertilisers shall only be used in a supplementary role to carbon based materials. Allowance for use shall only be given when other fertility management practices have been used.

4.4.7.

Mineral fertilisers shall be applied in their natural composition and shall not be rendered more soluble by chemical treatment.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may grant exceptions which shall be well justified. These exceptions shall not include mineral fertilisers containing nitrogen.

4.4.8.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall lay down restrictions for the use of inputs such as mineral potassium, magnesium fertilisers, trace elements, manures and fertilisers with a relatively high heavy metal content and/or other unwanted substances, e.g. basic slag, rock phosphate and sewage sludge (Appendices 1 and 2).

4.4.9.

Chilean nitrate and all synthetic nitrogenous fertilisers, including urea, are prohibited.

 

 

 

4.5.  Pest, Disease and Weed Management including Growth Regulators

General Principles

Organic farming systems should be carried out in a way which ensures that losses from pests, diseases and weeds are minimised. Emphasis is placed on the use of crops and varieties well-adapted to the environment, a balanced fertilisation programme, fertile soils of high biological activity, adapted rotations, companion planting, green manures, etc.

Growth and development should take place in a natural manner.

 

Recommendations

Weeds, pests and diseases should be managed by a number of preventive cultural techniques which limit their development, e.g. suitable rotations, green manures, a balanced fertilisation programme, early and predrilling seedbed preparations, mulching, mechanical control and the disturbance of pest development cycles.

The natural enemies of pests and diseases should be protected and encouraged through proper habitat management of hedges, nesting sites etc.

Pest management should be regulated by understanding and disrupting the ecological needs of the pests.

 

Standards

4.5.1.

Products used for pest, disease and weed management, prepared at the farm from local plants, animals and micro-organisms, are allowed. If the ecosystem or the quality of organic products might be jeopardised, the Procedure to Evaluate Additional Inputs to Organic Agriculture (Appendix 3) and other relevant criteria shall be used to judge if the product is acceptable. Brand name products must always be evaluated.

4.5.2.

Thermic weed control and physical methods for pest, disease and weed management are permitted.

4.5.3.

Thermic sterilisation of soils to combat pests and diseases is restricted to circumstances where a proper rotation or renewal of soil cannot take place. Permission may only be given by the certification body on a case by case basis.

4.5.4.

All equipment from conventional farming systems shall be properly cleaned and free from residues before being used on organically managed areas.

4.5.5.

The use of synthetic pesticides is prohibited. Permitted products for plant pest and disease control, weed management and plant growth regulators may be found in Appendix 2.

4.5.6.

The use of synthetic growth regulators is prohibited. Synthetic dyes may not be used for cosmetic alteration of organic product.

4.5.7.

The use of genetically engineered organisms or products thereof is prohibited.

4.6.  Contamination Control

General Principles

All relevant measures should be taken to minimise contamination from outside and within the farm.

 

Recommendations

In case of risk or reasonable suspicion of risk of pollution, the certification body/ standardising organisation should set limits for the maximum application levels of heavy metals and other pollutants.

Accumulation of heavy metals and other pollutants should be limited.

 

Standards

4.6.1.

In case of reasonable suspicion of contamination the certification body shall make sure that an analysis of the relevant products and possible sources of pollution (soil, water, air and inputs) shall take place to determine the level of contamination and take measures accordingly.

4.6.2.

For protected structure coverings, plastic mulches, fleeces, insect netting and silage wrapping, only products based on polyethylene and polypropylene or other polycarbonates are allowed. These shall be removed from the soil after use and shall not be burned on the farmland. The use of polychloride based products is prohibited.

 

  1. Soil and Water Conservation

 

General Principles

Soil and water resources should be handled in a sustainable manner.

 

Recommendations

Relevant measures should be taken to prevent erosion, salination of soil, excessive and improper use of water and the pollution of ground and surface water.

 

Standards

4.7.1.

Clearing of land through the means of burning organic matter, e.g. slash-and burn, straw burning shall be restricted to the minimum.

4.7.2.

The clearing of primary forest is prohibited.

4.7.3.

Relevant measures shall be taken to prevent erosion.

4.7.4.

Excessive exploitation and depletion of water resources are not allowed.

4.7.5.

The certification body shall require appropriate stocking rates which do not lead to land degradation and pollution of ground and surface water.

4.7.6.

Relevant measures shall be taken to prevent salination of soil and water.

 

4.8. Collection of Non Cultivated Material of Plant Origin and Honey

General Principles

The act of collection should positively contribute to the maintenance of natural areas.

 

Recommendations

When harvesting or gathering the products, attention should be paid to maintenance and sustainability of the ecosystem.

 

Standards

4.8.1.

Wild harvested products shall only be certified organic if derived from a stable and sustainable growing environment. Harvesting or gathering the product shall not exceed the sustainable yield of the ecosystem, or threaten the existence of plant or animal species.

4.8.2.

Products can only be certified organic if derived from a clearly defined collecting area which is not exposed to prohibited substances, and which is subject to inspection.

4.8.3.

The collection area shall be at an appropriate distance from conventional farming, pollution and contamination.

4.8.4.

The operator managing the harvesting or gathering of the products shall be clearly identified and be familiar with the collecting area in question.

Basic Standards Content Page

5. Animal Husbandry

 

5.1. Animal Husbandry Management

General Principles

Management techniques in animal husbandry should be governed by the physiological and ethological needs of the farm animals in question. This includes:

 

Recommendations

For welfare reasons the herd or flock size should not adversely affect the behavioural patterns of the animal.

Standards

5.1.1.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall ensure that the management of the animal environment takes into account the behavioural needs of the animals and provides for:

a. Sufficient free movement

b. Sufficient fresh air and natural daylight according to the needs of the animals

    1. Protection against excessive sunlight, temperatures, rain and wind according to the needs of the animals

d. Enough lying and/or resting area according to the needs of the animal. For all animals

requiring bedding, natural materials shall be provided.

e. Ample access to fresh water and feed according to the needs of the animals

f. Adequate facilities for expressing behaviour in accordance with the biological and

ethological needs of the species.

g. No construction materials or production equipment shall be used in a way that may

significantly harm human or animal health.

h. Poultry, rabbits and pigs shall not be kept in cages.

5.1.2.

All animals shall have access to open air and/or grazing appropriate to the type of animal and season taking into account their age and condition, to be specified by the certification body/ standardising organisation

The certification body may allow exceptions in cases where:

a. The specific farm or settlement structure prevents such access. Animal welfare shall not be compromised. A time limit must be set for this exception.

b. Feeding of animals with carried fresh fodder is a more sustainable way to use land resources than grazing. Animal welfare shall not be compromised.

5.1.3.

Landless animal husbandry systems shall not be allowed.

5.1.4.

When natural day length is prolonged by artificial lighting, the certification body/ standardising organisation shall prescribe maximum hours respective to species, geographical considerations and general health of animals.

5.1.5.

Herd animals shall not be kept individually.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may allow exceptions e.g. for male animals, smallholdings, sick animals and those about to give birth.

 

5.2. Length of Conversion Period

General Principles

The establishment of organic animal husbandry requires an interim period, the conversion period.

Recommendations

The whole farm, including livestock, should be converted according to the standards set out in this document. Conversion may be accomplished over a period of time.

Replacement poultry should be brought onto the holding at the start of the production cycle.

 

Standards

5.2.1.

Animal products may be sold as "product of organic agriculture" only after the farm or relevant part of it has been under conversion for at least twelve months and providing the organic animal production standards have been met for the appropriate time.

5.2.2.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall specify the length of time for which the animal production standards shall have been met. With regard to dairy and egg production this period shall not be less than 30 days.

5.2.3.

Animals present on the farm at the time of conversion may be sold for organic meat when the organic standards have been met for 12 months.

 

5.3. Brought-in Animals

General Principles

All organic animals should be born and raised on the organic holding.

 

Recommendations

Organic animal husbandry should not be dependent on conventional raising systems. When trading or exchanging livestock, this should preferably take place between organic farms or as part of a long term co-operation between specific farms.

Standards

5.3.1.

When organic livestock is not available, the certification body/ standardising

organisation may allow brought-in conventional animals according to the

following age limits:

a. 2 day old chickens for meat production

b. 18 week old hens for egg production

c. 2 week old for any other poultry

d. piglets up to six weeks and after weaning

e. calves up to 4 weeks old which have received colostrum and are fed a diet consisting mainly of full milk.

Certification bodies/ standardising organisations shall set time limits (which in

any event shall be before 31st December 2003) for implementation of certified

organic animals from conception for each type of animal.

5.3.2.

Breeding stock may be brought in from conventional farms with a yearly

maximum of 10% of the adult animals of the same species on the farm.

For brought-in breeding stock the certification body/ standardising organisation

ay allow a higher yearly maximum than 10% in the following cases and with

specific time limits:

a. Unforeseen severe natural or man made events

b. Considerable enlargement of the farm

c. Establishment of a new type of animal production on the farm

d. Small holdings

 

5.4. Breeds and Breeding

General Principles

Breeds should be chosen which are adapted to local conditions.

Breeding goals should not be in opposition to the animals’ natural behaviour and should be directed toward good health.

 

Recommendations

Breeding should not include methods that make the farming system dependent on high technological and capital intensive methods.

Reproduction techniques should be natural.

 

Standards

5.4.1.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall ensure that breeding systems are based on breeds that can both copulate and give birth naturally.

5.4.2.

Artificial insemination is allowed.

5.4.3.

Embryo transfer techniques are not allowed.

5.4.4.

Hormonal heat treatment and induced birth are not allowed unless applied to individual animals for medical reasons and under veterinary advice.

5.4.5.

The use of genetically engineered species or breeds is not allowed.

 

5.5. Mutilations

General Principles

The animals distinctive characteristics should be respected.

 

Recommendations

Species should be chosen which do not require mutilation.

Exceptions for mutilations should only be given when suffering can be kept to the minimum.

 

Standards

5.5.1.

Mutilations are not allowed.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may allow the following exceptions:

Suffering shall be minimised and anaesthetics used where appropriate.

 

5.6. Animal Nutrition

General Principles

The livestock should be fed 100% organically grown feed of good quality.

All feed should come from the farm itself or be produced within the region.

The diet shall be offered to the animals in a form allowing them to execute their natural feeding behaviour and digestive needs.

 

Recommendations

The diet should be balanced according to the nutritional needs of the animals.

Use should be made of products from the organic food processing industry.

Colouring agents should not be used in organic livestock production.

Standards

5.6.1.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall draw up standards for feed and feed supplements.

5.6.2.

The prevailing part (at least more than 50%) of the feed shall come from the farm unit itself or be produced in co-operation with other organic farms in the region.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may allow exceptions with regard to local conditions, and must set a time limit.

 

5.6.3.

For the calculation of feeding allowances only, feed produced on the farm unit during the first year of organic management, may be classed as organic. This refers only to feed for animals that are being produced within the farm unit. Such feed may not be sold or otherwise marketed as organic.

5.6.4.

Animals shall be fed 100% organic feed. The certification body/ standardising organisation may allow exemptions in situations where it proves impossible to obtain adequate organic feed. Exemptions may allow a percentage of feed consumed by farm animals to be from conventional farming origin. The maximum percentages of such feeds are given in the following table and shall be calculated in terms of the average diet for each animal category.

These maximum percentages shall be followed the whole year round:

Ruminants (dry matter) 15%

Non-ruminants (dry matter) 20%

From 2002 these percentages will be reduced to

Ruminants (dry matter) 10%

Non-ruminants (dry matter) 15%

The certification body/ standardising organisation may allow exceptions to these percentages, with specific time limits and conditions in the following cases:

a. Unforeseen severe natural or man-made events

b. Extreme climatic or weather conditions

c. Areas where organic agriculture is in early stages of development

5.6.5.

The following products shall not be included in, nor added to the feed or in any other way be given to farm animals:

a. Synthetic growth promoters or stimulants

b. Synthetic appetisers

c. Preservatives, except when used as a processing aid

d. Artificial colouring agents

e. Urea

f. Farm animal by-products (e.g. abattoir waste) to ruminants

g. Droppings, dung or other manure (all types of excrements)

h. Feed subjected to solvent extraction (e.g. hexane) or the addition of other chemical

agents

i. Pure amino acids

j. Genetically engineered organisms or products thereof

This covers both organic and conventional feeding stuffs.

5.6.6.

Vitamins, trace elements and supplements shall be used from natural origin when available in appropriate quantity and quality.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall define conditions for use of vitamins and minerals from synthesised or unnatural sources.

5.6.7.

All ruminants shall have daily access to roughage.

 

 

5.6.8.

Fodder preservatives such as these may be used:

a. Bacteria, fungi and enzymes

b. By-products of food industry (e.g. molasses)

c. Plant based products

Synthetic chemical fodder preservatives may be allowed in special weather conditions. The certification body/ standardising organisation shall specify conditions for use of substances from synthesised or unnatural sources e.g. acetic, formic and propionic acid and vitamins and minerals.

5.6.9.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set minimum weaning times taking into account the natural behaviour of the relevant animal species.

5.6.10.

Youngstock from mammals shall be raised using systems that rely on organic milk, preferably from their own species.

In emergencies the certification bodies may allow the use of milk from non-organic farming systems or dairy based milk substitutes so long as they do not contain antibiotics or synthetic additives.

 

5.7. Veterinary Medicine

General Principles

Management practices should be directed to the well being of animals, achieving maximum resistance against disease and preventing infections.

Sick and injured animals must be given prompt and adequate treatment.

 

Recommendations

Natural medicines and methods, including homeopathy, ayurvedic medicine and acupuncture, should be emphasised.

When illness does occur the aim should be to find the cause and prevent future outbreaks by changing management practices.

Where appropriate the certification bodies should set conditions based on the farm’s veterinary records to minimise the use of medicines.

The certification body/ standardising organisation should make a list of medicines and withholding periods.

 

Standards

5.7.1.

The well-being of the animals is the primary consideration in the choice of illness treatment. The use of conventional veterinary medicines is allowed when no other justifiable alternative is available.

 

5.7.2.

Where conventional veterinary medicines are used, the withholding period shall be at least double the legal period.

5.7.3.

Use of the following substances is forbidden:

    1. Synthetic growth promoters,

    2. Substances of synthetic origin for production stimulation or suppression of natural growth,

c. Hormones for heat induction and heat synchronisation unless used for an individual

animal

against reproductive disorders, justified by veterinary indications.

5.7.4.

Vaccinations shall be used only when diseases are known or expected to be a problem in the region of the farm and where these diseases cannot be controlled by other management techniques. The certification body/ standardising organisation shall define conditions for such cases.

a. Legally required vaccinations are allowed.

b. Genetically engineered vaccines are prohibited.

 

5.8. Transport and Slaughter

 

General Principles

Transport and slaughter should minimise stress to the animal.

Transport distance and frequency should be minimised.

The transport medium should be appropriate for each animal.

 

Recommendations

Animals should be inspected regularly during transport.

Animals should be watered and fed during transport depending on weather conditions and duration of the transport.

Stress to the animal should be minimised, especially taking into consideration:

a. Contact (by sight, sound or smell) of each animal with dead animals or animals in the killing process

b. Existing group ties

c. Resting time to release stress

Each animal should be stunned before being bled to death. The equipment used for stunning should be in good working order. Exceptions can be made according to cultural practice. Where animals are bled without prior stunning this should take place in a calm environment.

 

Standards

5.8.1.

Throughout the different steps of the process there shall be a person responsible for the well-being of the animal.

5.8.2.

The handling during transport and slaughter shall be calm and gentle. The use of electric sticks and such instruments is prohibited.

5.8.3.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set slaughter and transportation standards that take into consideration:

a. Stress caused to the animal and person in charge

b. Fitness of the animal

c. Loading and unloading

d. Mixing different groups of animals or animals of different sex

e. Quality and suitability of mode of transport and handling equipment

f. Temperatures and relative humidity

g. Hunger and thirst

h. Specific needs of each animal

5.8.4.

No chemically synthesised tranquillisers or stimulants shall be given prior to or during transport.

5.8.5.

Each animal or group of animals shall be identifiable during all steps.

5.8.6.

Where the transport is by axle, the journey time to the slaughterhouse shall not exceed eight hours. Certification bodies may grant exceptions on a case by case basis.

 

5.9. Bee Keeping

 

General Principles

The collection area should be organic and/or wild and should be as varied as possible to fulfil the nutritional needs of the colony and contribute to good health.

The feed supplied should be fully organic.

Bee keeping is considered to be part of animal husbandry. The general principles therefore also apply to bee keeping.

 

Recommendations

The feeding of colonies should be seen as an exception to overcome temporary feed shortages due to climatic conditions.

When bees are placed in wild areas, consideration should be taken of the indigenous insect population.

 

Standards

5.9.1.

Hives shall be situated in organically managed fields and/or wild natural areas. Hives shall not be placed close to fields or other areas where chemical pesticides and herbicides are used.

Exceptions can be made by certification bodies on a case by case basis.

5.9.2.

Feeding shall only take place after the last harvest before the season when no foraging feed is available.

The percentage of wild products/certified organic ingredients used for feeding shall be at least 90%. The certification body/ standardising organization may allow exception to this percentage, with specific time limits and conditions in specific cases of unforeseen severe natural, or man made events

.

Sugar may be fed to facilitate hibernation and formation of young colonies. Conventional sugar may be used where organic sugar is not available. The certification body/ standardising organisation may grant this exception on a case-by-case basis. The certification body/standardising organization may allow exception to this percentage, with specific time limits until 2002 and conditions in specific cases of unforeseen severe natural, or man-made events.

5.9.3.

The foundation comb shall be made from organic wax.

5.9.4.

Each bee hive shall primarily consist of natural materials. Use of construction materials with potentially toxic effects are prohibited.

5.9.5.

Persistent materials may not be used in beehives where there is a possibility of permeation of the honey and where residues may be distributed in the area through dead bees.

5.9.6.

Wing clipping is not allowed.

5.9.7.

Artificial insemination of queen bees for breeding purposes is allowed.

5.9.8.

Veterinary medicine shall not be used in bee keeping.

When working with the bees (e.g. at harvest) no repellent consisting of prohibited substances shall be used.

5.9.9.

For pest and disease control and for hive disinfection the following products may be allowed:

a. caustic soda

b. lactic, oxalic, acetic acid

c. formic acid

d. sulphur

e. etheric oils

f. Bacillus thuringiensis

Basic Standards Content Page

6. Aquaculture Production

Draft Standard

6.1. Scope

Aquaculture includes many forms of production in fresh-, brackish- and saltwater, and many species. These standards cover carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous organisms of all stages grown in any form of enclosures such as earthen ponds, tanks and cages (open and closed systems). Wild, stationary organisms in open collecting areas can be certified as organic. Organisms which are moving freely in open waters, and/or which are not inspectable according to general procedures for organic production, are not covered by these standards.

This chapter has the status of draft standards.

 

6.2. Conversion to Organic Aquaculture

General Principles

Conversion is a process of developing a viable and sustainable aquatic ecosystem. The time between the start of organic management and certification of the production is known as the conversion period.

Aquaculture production can vary widely according to biology of the organisms, technology used, geographical conditions, ownership structure, time span, etc. These aspects should be taken into consideration when the length of conversion is specified.

 

Recommendations

The total production should be converted according to the standards over a period of time. If a production unit is not converted all at once, sections should be converted in such a way that these standards are met in full.

The person responsible for the production shall have a clear plan of how to proceed with the conversion. This plan shall be updated when necessary, and shall include:

The length of the conversion period should be at least one life cycle of the organism in question.

 

Standards

6.2.1.

The principle requirements shall be met during the conversion period.

6.2.2.

Where the entire production is not converted the following is required:

 

6.2.3.

The length of the conversion period shall be specified by the certification body/ standardising organisation, taking into consideration life cycle and species, environmental factors, and past use of the site with respect to waste, sediments and water quality.

6.2.4.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may allow brought-in organisms of conventional origin, provided these are not genetically engineered. Required conversion periods for brought-in organisms shall be defined by the certification body/ standardising organisation.

6.2.5.

No conversion period is required in the case of:

and:

 

6.3. Basic Conditions

General Principles

Management techniques must be governed by the physiological and ethological needs of the organisms in question. The organisms should be allowed to conduct their basic behavioural needs, and all management techniques, especially where production levels and speed of growth are concerned, must be directed at good health and welfare of the organisms.

Special care must be taken when introducing non-native species.

The basis for production is the maintenance of the aquatic environment and surrounding aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem, achieved by combinations of:

 

Recommendations

Converting main nutrients of plant and animal origin by means of animal production results in losses during the metabolic conversion. For that reason feed sources based on by-products and materials of biological origin not used for human consumption, should be encouraged.

Standards

6.3.1.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set standards which take into account the behavioural needs of organisms. This must include provisions regarding:

6.3.2.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may allow artificially prolonged light periods, respective to species and geographical considerations. When the natural daylength is artificially prolonged, the daylength limit is 16 hours per day.

6.3.3.

No compounds in construction materials and production equipment (paints, impregnating materials with synthetic and/or chemical agents etc.) which can detrimentally affect the environment or the health of the organisms in question, can be used.

6.3.4.

Adequate measures must be taken to prevent escapes of cultivated species living in enclosures.

6.3.5.

Adequate measures must be taken to prevent predators that may cause damage to species living in enclosures.

6.3.6.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set standards on the basis of relevant measures in order to prevent excessive and/or improper use of water.

 

6.4. Location of Production Units

General Principles

Location of production units shall take into consideration the maintenance of the aquatic environment and surrounding aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem.

Recommendations

Production units shall be at an appropriate distance from contamination sources and conventional aquaculture. Negative environmental impact from aquaculture production should be minimised.

Standards

6.4.1.

The distance between organic and conventional production units in open systems shall be defined by the certification body/ standardising organisation .

6.4.2.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set standards concerning protection from pollution and contamination, including appropriate distances.

 

6.5. Location of Collecting Areas

General Principles

Wild, stationary organisms in open collecting areas may be certified as organic if derived from an unpolluted, stable and sustainable environment.

Recommendations

Collecting areas should be at an appropriate distance from contamination and conventional aquaculture.

Negative environmental impact from aquaculture production shall be minimised.

Standards

6.5.1.

The area shall be clearly defined and shall be inspectable concerning water quality, feed, medication, input factors and others which are needed according to the standards.

6.5.2.

Collecting areas shall be at an appropriate distance, specified by the certification body/ standardising organisation, from pollution and possible harmful influences from conventional aquaculture.

 

6.6. Health and Welfare

General Principles

All management practices should be directed at achieving a high level of resistance against disease and preventing infections.

All management techniques, especially where production levels and speed of growth are concerned, must be directed at good health and welfare of the organisms. Handling of living aquatic organisms should be minimised.

The well-being of the organisms is paramount in the choice of illness treatment.

Recommendations

The aim must be to find the cause and to prevent future outbreaks by changing management practices. When treatment is necessary natural methods and medicines should be emphasised.

Disease treatment should be carried out in a way that minimises harmful effects on the environment.

Standards

6.6.1.

Conventional, veterinary drugs may only be used if no other justifiable alternative is available, and/or if required according to national law.

If veterinary drugs have to be used, the certification body/ standardising organisation shall define withholding periods. The length of the withholding periods shall be at least twice the conventional requirement.

6.6.2.

Prophylactic use of veterinary drugs, except vaccinations in certain cases (see 6.6.3.), is not allowed.

6.6.3.

Vaccinations are allowed if diseases are known to exist in the region and cannot be controlled by other management techniques, and vaccinations are also allowed if they are legally required.

Genetically engineered vaccines are not allowed.

6.6.4.

Use of synthetic hormones and synthetic growth promoters are not allowed.

6.6.5.

The certification body shall ensure that records of disease management are being kept. The records shall include:

6.6.6.

In case of irregular behaviour by the organisms, the water quality shall be analysed according to the needs of the organisms, and shall be documented.

6.6.7.

Aquatic animals shall not be subject to any kind of mutilation.

 

6.7. Breeds and Breeding

General Principles

Breeding goals should interfere as little as possible with natural behaviour of the animals. Breeding should not include methods which make the production system dependent on high technological and capital intensive methods.

 

Recommendations

Breeds which are adapted to local conditions should be chosen. Breeding goals should aim at obtaining good food quality, and as good growth as possible on the lowest possible input level.

Brought in conventional aquatic organisms should spend at least 2/3 of its lifespan in the organic system.

 

Standards

6.7.1.

Breeding with natural birth should generally be chosen. The certification body/ standardising organisation may, however, allow the use of production systems which do not imply natural birth, for instance hatching of fish eggs.

6.7.2.

Where available brought in aquatic organisms shall come from organic sources.

6.7.3.

Certification body/ standardising organisation shall define the minimum length of time brought in aquatic organisms must spend on the organic unit.

6.7.4.

Triploid organisms and genetically engineered species or breeds, are not allowed.

 

6.8. Nutrition

General Principles

Diets for aquaculture production must be balanced according to the nutritional needs of the organisms, and be of good quality. Diets should be offered to the organisms in a way that allows natural feeding behaviour, with minimum loss of feed to the environment.

Organically certified by-products and wild marine feed resources otherwise not directly suited for human consumption, should be used as feed ingredients.

 

Recommendation

Feeding and feeding regimes should be organised to give best possible growth on least possible input.

Nutrient management should contribute to maintain the biological diversity in the area.

Standards

6.8.1.

Aquafeeds shall generally contain 100% certified organic components, or wild aquatic feed resources. When wild fish are used, the "Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries" (FAO, 1995) shall be followed.

When certified organic components or wild marine feed resources are not available, the certification body/ standardising organisation may allow a maximum 5% of the feed (by dry weight) to be of conventional origin.

6.8.2.

In systems which require feed inputs, at least 50% of the aquatic animal protein in a diet shall come from by-products, cutoff or other waste and/or other material not used for human consumption.

6.8.3.

In cases of unforeseen severe natural events, the certification body/ standardising organisation may grant exceptions from the percentages mentioned in 6.8.1. and 6.8.2., with specific time limits and conditions.

6.8.4.

Plant and/or animal sources shall form the basis of feeding and fertilisation.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may grant the use of mineral supplements, provided they are applied in their natural composition.

Use of human faeces is restricted.

6.8.5.

The following products shall not be included in, nor added to the feed or in any other way be given to the organisms:

6.8.6.

Vitamins, trace elements and supplements shall be used from natural origin when available.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall define conditions for use of substances from synthesised or unnatural sources.

6.8.7.

Feed preservatives such as the following may be used:

Synthetic chemical feed preservatives may be allowed in case of special weather conditions. The certification body/ standardising organisation shall specify conditions.

 

6.9. Harvesting

General Principles

Harvesting of organisms from enclosures or from collecting areas should be carried out with a minimum stress to the organisms. The act of collection should not negatively affect the maintenance of natural areas.

 

Recommendations

Handling of living aquatic organisms should be minimised and be done in the most considerate manner. Harvesting or gathering of products shall not exceed the sustainable yield of the ecosystem, or threaten the existence of plant or animal species.

 

Standards

6.9.1.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set standards for handling of living organisms which are adapted to the organism in question, to ensure that harvesting from enclosures and collecting areas are carried out in the most considerate manner possible.

6.9.2.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set standards for harvesting or gathering of products from collecting areas to ensure that the sustainable yield of the ecosystem is not exceeded, and that the existence of plant or animal species is not threatened.

 

6.10. Transportation of Living Marine Animals

General Principles

The transportation medium should be appropriate for the species with regards to water quality, temperature, oxygen etc. Transportation distance and frequency should be minimised.

 

Recommendations

Transportation of living aquatic animals should be minimised and should be done in the most considerate manner. Living animals should be looked after regularly during transportation.

 

Standards

6.10.1.

Transportation shall not cause avoidable stress or physical injury to the animals. Transportation equipment and/or construction materials shall not have potentially toxic effects.

6.10.2.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set appropriate transportation requirements regarding:

 

6.10.3.

Chemically synthesised tranquillisers or stimulants shall not be given to the animals prior to or during transport.

6.10.4.

There shall be one person responsible for the well-being of the animals during transport.

 

6.11. Slaughter

General Principles

Stress and suffering connected with the slaughter process should be minimised. Slaughter management and techniques should be governed by careful consideration with regard to physiology and ethology of the organisms in question, as well as to accepted ethical standards.

 

Recommendations

To avoid unnecessary suffering, the organisms should be in a state of unconsciousness before bleeding out.

 

Standards

6.11.1.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set standards to ensure that stress is minimised in connection with slaughtering.

6.11.2.

Where applicable, aquatic organisms shall be in a state of unconsciousness before bleeding to death. Equipment used for stunning shall be in good working order and shall affect the deep laying parts of the brain in one quick act.

Surveillance for proper functioning shall be carried out regularly. Equipment relying on gas or electricity shall be monitored continuously.

6.11.3.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall specify slaughterhouse requirements based on local species and cultural customs. This shall include:

Basic Standards Content Page

7. Food Processing and Handling

7.1. General

General Principles

ucts should be optimised to maintain the quality and integrity of the product and directed at minimising the development of pests and diseases.

Recommendations

Processing and handling of organic products should be done separately in time or place from handling and processing of non organic products.

Pollution sources should be identified and contamination avoided.

Flavouring extracts should be obtained from food (preferably organic) by means of physical processes.

 

Standards

7.1.1.

Organic products shall be protected from co-mingling with non-organic products.

7.1.2.

All products shall be adequately identified through the whole process.

7.1.3.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall set standards to prevent and control pollutants and contaminants.

7.1.4.

Organic and non-organic products shall not be stored and transported together except when labelled or physically separated.

7.1.5.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall establish standards for decontamination, cleaning and disinfection of all facilities where organic products are kept, handled, processed or stored.

7.1.6.

Besides storage at ambient temperature, the following special conditions of storage are permitted (See Appendix 4):

a. Controlled atmosphere

b. Temperature control

c. Drying

d. Humidity regulation

7.1.7.

Ethylene gas is permitted for ripening.

 

7.2. Pest and Disease Control

General Principles

Pests should be avoided by good manufacturing practices. This includes general cleanliness and hygiene.

Treatments with pest regulating agents must thus be regarded as the last resort.

 

Recommendations

Recommended treatments are physical barriers, sound, ultra-sound, light and UV-light, traps (incl. pheromone traps and static bait traps), temperature control, controlled atmosphere and diatomaceous earth.

A plan for pest prevention and pest control should be developed.

 

Standards

7.2.1.

For pest management and control the following measures should be used in order of priority:

a. Preventative methods such as disruption, elimination of habitat and access to

facilities

b. Mechanical, physical and biological methods

c. Substances according to the Appendices of the Basic Standards

d. Substances (other than pesticides) used in traps

Irradiation is prohibited.

7.2.2.

There shall never be direct or indirect contact between organic products and prohibited substances. (e.g. prohibited pesticides). When any doubt arises, products should be tested to determine if it has been contaminated.

7.2.3.

Persistent or carcinogenic pesticides and disinfectants are not permitted.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall establish standards to for the use of pest control products.

 

7.3 Ingredients, Additives and Processing Aids

 

General Principles

100% of the ingredients should be certified organic.

 

Recommendations

For the production of enzymes and other micro-biological products the medium should be composed of organic ingredients.

The certification body/ standardising organisation should create limiting lists which take into consideration:

 

Standards

7.3.1.

In cases where an ingredient of organic origin is unavailable in sufficient quality or quantity, the certification body/ standardising organisation may authorise use of non organic raw materials subject to periodic review and re-evaluation. These materials shall not be genetically engineered.

7.3.2.

The same ingredient within one product shall not be derived both from an organic and non-organic origin.

7.3.3.

Water and salt may be used as ingredients in the production of organic products and are not included in the percentage calculations of organic ingredients. (See Section 7.1.4)

7.3.4.

Minerals (including trace elements), vitamins and similar isolated ingredients shall not be used.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may grant exceptions where use is legally required or where severe dietary or nutritional deficiency can be demonstrated.

7.3.5.

Preparations of micro-organisms and enzymes commonly used in food processing may be used, with the exception of genetically engineered micro-organisms and their products.

7.3.6.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall establish standards for the use of additives and processing aids. See Appendix 4.

 

7.4. Processing Methods

General Principles

Processing methods should be based on mechanical , physical and biological processes.

The vital quality of an organic ingredient should be maintained throughout each step of its processing.

 

Recommendations

Processing methods should be chosen to limit the number and quantity of additives and processing aids.

 

Standards

7.4.1.

The following kind of processes are approved:

7.4.2.

Extraction shall only take place with water, ethanol, plant and animal oils, vinegar, carbon dioxide, nitrogen or carboxylic acids. These shall be of food grade quality and appropriate for their purpose.

7.4.3.

Irradiation is not allowed.

7.4.4.

Filtration substances shall not be made of asbestos nor may they be permeated with substances that may negatively affect the product.

 

7.5. Packaging

General Principles

The environmental effects of packaging use should be minimised.

 

Recommendations

Unnecessary packaging materials should be avoided.

Recycling and reusable systems should be used wherever possible.

Biodegradable packaging materials should be used.

 

Standards

7.5.1.

Material used for packaging shall not contaminate food.

7.5.2.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall have a policy to reduce the environmental effects of packaging material.

Basic Standards Content Page

8. Processing of Textiles

Draft Standard

8.1. Scope

The standards are applicable to all kinds of natural fibre products including, but not limited to:

These standards cover the processing of certified organic fibres and certified wild fibres.

This chapter has the status of draft standards.

 

8.2. Raw Materials

General Principles

The textile raw materials in a textile product should be 100% organically produced.

The processing of raw materials into fibres should be done with consideration to the environment.

The non textile raw materials in a textile product should be harmless to the environment and humans, both in production, consumption and disposal.

The raw materials should contain the characteristics of the desired end product (e.g. natural coloured fibres, natural flame retardant).

 

Recommendations

Natural fibres should be used.

The certification body/ standardising organisation should regulate the contents and/or the emission of nickel, and chrome and other non desirable substances in non textile accessories.

 

Standards

8.2.1.

Cotton Defoliation

The use of cotton defoliants are prohibited.

Certification body/ standardising organisation may allow exceptions for calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and sodium chloride until 2002.

Retting

Field retting of flax and other fibres is permitted. If wet retting and steam retting is used, the certification body/ standardising organisation shall require appropriate waste water treatment or use, to avoid water pollution.

Silk Production

Mulberry trees for silk production shall be organically cultivated.

If silk is certified, the certification body/ standardising organisation shall develop standards for egg cultivation, silk worm cultivation and reeling. Such standards shall require that:

Wool Scouring

Tensides used for wool scouring shall be readily biodegradable (OECD 301) and there shall be an appropriate waste water treatment.

8.2.2.

When needed to produce a long life quality, a certain function or fashion, the certification body/ standardising organisation may allow the use of non certified materials according to the following:

Non Certified Natural Fibres

When a certified organic natural fibre is not available in the required quantity and quality, the certification body/ standardising organisation may allow non certified natural fibres to be mixed with the certified fibres or used in certain details. The same fibre shall not be of certified organic and non certified origin.

Synthetic Fibres

When synthetic, regenerated cellulose or recycled fibres are used the following are excluded:

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall develop lists of approved synthetics.

The mixing in of non organic fibres must be in accordance with IFOAM labelling standards (Chapter 10).

8.2.3.

The certification body shall not certify products where non textile accessories constitute the major part of the product, unless they have developed criteria for such details.

Accessories may not contain more Cadmium than 0.1 mg/kg.

 

  1. Processing in General

 

General Principles

All processing units should follow an integrated environmental management system.

 

Recommendations

Processing should take place using appropriate and least damaging environmental techniques.

Standards

8.3.1.

IFOAM standards for storage, separation, identification, hygiene and pest management apply. IFOAM standards for food additives and processing aids do not apply.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may grant individual exceptions for the requirements of separation in instances where such separation could lead to substantial environmental or economic disadvantages, and where there is no risk of the mixing of raw materials e.g. the possible contact of an organic product with recycled fluids that have been previously used for conventional production (mercerising, sizing rinsing etc.). When granting such exceptions, the certification body/ standardising organisation shall establish that there is no contamination by the actual process.

 

8.4. Environmental Criteria for Wet Processing

General Principles

The wet processing of organic fibres into textiles should prevent any negative environmental impact.

 

Recommendations

The certification body/ standardising organisation should develop standards for the sewage treatment and the effluents regarding BOD and COD (or TOC or TOD), heavy metals and phosphorus as well as the disposal of sewage sludge and solids.

The quality of the waste treatment must be considered with respect to the inputs being used.

 

Standards

8.4.1.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall require that any production unit:

8.4.2.

The certification body shall only certify production units where there is at least functioning internal or external sewage water treatment (sedimentation, temperature, pH regulation).

8.4.3.

The certification body/ standardising organisation may apply these environmental criteria only to the processing of the certified textiles and not to the whole factory.

 

8.5. Input Products - General

The use of chemical products (dyes, auxiliaries etc.) in textile processing is regulated. These inputs are referred to as "products" in the text. The standards do not apply to lubricating oils for machinery, paints for machines and facilities and similar, unless they are likely to contaminate the fabrics.

 

General Principles

The processing of organic fibres should utilise organic or natural substances. Where this is not possible the processing should avoid the use of synthetic chemical and substances that may pollute the environment or pose a hazard for workers or consumers.

When assessing products the total environmental impact should be considered.

Recommendations

Processing of organic textiles should avoid the use of synthetic chemicals, substances which are environmental pollutants and substances which pose a health or safety hazard for workers or consumers.

The use of bio-accumulating products and heavy metals should be avoided.

 

Standards

8.5.1.

All products shall be declared by the operator, including relevant data assessment (safety data sheets). Preservatives shall always be declared.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall have all recipes used on file.

 

8.5.2.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall develop criteria for evaluation of products. Such criteria shall consider both the biodegradability and the toxicity e.g.:

Biodegradability Toxicity for aquatic organisms

28 days (LC50 or EC50 or IC50 for algae,

(OECD 302 A) water-fleas and fish)

Can be approved < 70% >100 mg/l

 

Can be approved > 70% 10-100 mg/l

 

Prohibited <70% < 100 mg/l

 

Prohibited < 1 mg/l

 

The same rules should apply for metabolites.

Considering the need for gaining more experience in the evaluation of products, the certification body/ standardising organisation may develop alternative models or use other existing models if these ensure satisfactory environmental performance. Such alternative models shall be published and the certification body/ standardising organisation shall document the results of such a model compared to the model above.

In any case products may not be used if they are either:

*) "R" refers to the European system as described in Reg. 92/32/EEC.

In addition the certification body/ standardising organisation shall not approve the use of a certain product if there are appropriate alternatives available that:

8.5.3.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall maintain a positive list of substances allowed or a negative list where substances not allowed shall be identified.

Biocides including PCP, TCP and PCB may not be included in any input.

The following chemicals may not be present in any product with more than 1%:

 

8.6. Special Regulations for Different Steps in Processing

Standards

Apart from the general criteria these special regulations for different steps apply:

8.6.1.

Spinning oils (avivage) and knitting oils (needle oil) shall be readily biodegradable or made from vegetable or animal origin.

8.6.2.

Sizes shall be ultimately degradable, or be recycled to a minimum of 75%.

8.6.3.

Sodium hydroxide or other alkali is permitted for mercerising, but shall be recycled to the highest possible extent.

8.6.4.

Chlorine and perborate bleaching agents shall not be permitted for bleaching, colour removal or stain removal.

8.6.5.

Mordents may not contain heavy metals above the limits indicated under "dyestuffs".

8.6.6.

The following dyes may be used:

The following are excluded:

The certification body/ standardising organisation may grant limited exceptions for pigments containing copper if other alternatives are not available.

For other dyestuffs the general criteria should be applied for evaluation of their use.

Dyestuffs must not contain more than:

 

Antimony 50 ppm Arsenic 50 ppm Barium 100 ppm

Lead 100 ppm Cadmium 20 ppm Chromium 100 ppm

Iron 2500 ppm Copper 250 ppm Manganese 1000 ppm

Nickel 200 ppm Mercury 4 ppm Selenium 20 ppm

Silver 100 ppm Zinc 1500 ppm Tin 250 ppm

(ETAD Agreement)

Note: While heavy metals as dyestuffs are prohibited, they can appear as contaminants in other dyes. The limits above relates to such contamination.

Only printing methods based on water or natural oils are allowed.

Aromatic solvents are prohibited.

Colour residues shall be recycled or disposed of in a safe way.

8.6.7.

No restrictions apply to mechanical and physical treatments.

8.6.8.

Certification body/ standardising organisation must develop standards to regulate other methods and treatments which must at least satisfy the general criteria for chemicals.

 

8.7. Labelling

General Principles

The labelling should be correct and contain information useful to the consumer.

 

Recommendations

The certification body/ standardising organisation should require that any substances known to cause allergies and which have been used during textile processing should be mentioned on the label.

 

Standards

8.7.1.

Labelling of textiles follows IFOAM standards on labelling (see Chapter 9) with the following special regulations:

 

8.7.2.

Where the certified textile constitutes only part of the final product (i.e. furniture), the textiles can be declared according to this standard, but it must be clear from the labelling that this only relates to the textile part of the product.

 

Abbreviations in the textile standards

CI Colour Index

COD Chemical Oxygen Demand

EC50 Effect concentration (50% effect)

ETAD Ecological and Toxicological Association of the Dyestuff Manufacturing industries

IC50 Inhibition concentration (10% inhibition)

LC50 Lethal concentration (50% mortality)

OECD Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development

TOC Total Organic Carbon

TOD Total Oxygen Demand

a -MES a -methyl ester sulphonate (C16/18)

AOX Absorbable halogenated hydrocarbons, and substances that can cause their formation

APEO Alkylphenoloxylate

DEHP Diethylhexylphtalate

DTPA Diethylenetriamine penta-acetate

EDTA Ethylendiamine tetra-acetate

LAS Linear alkyl benzene sulphonate

PCB Polychlorinated Biphenyls

PCP Pentachloephenol

TCP Tetrachlorphenol

Basic Standards Content Page

9. Forest Management

Draft Standard

Introduction

Forest management covers both the extraction of timber and the harvesting of non timber forest products. This includes products from both natural forest (i.e. primary forest and well developed secondary forest) and plantations. These organic draft standards for forest management have been adapted from the Principles and Criteria of Forest Stewardship Council.

This chapter has the status of draft standards.

9.1. Conversion to Organic Forest Management

General Principles

Conversion defines the process of developing a viable and sustainable forest management system. The time between the start of organic management and certification of the production is known as the conversion period.

Aims and Recommendations

The total production should be converted to the standards over a period of time. If a production unit is not converted all at once sections should be converted in such a way that these standards are met in full.

Standards

9.1.1.

Those responsible for the production shall have a clear plan of how to proceed with the conversion. This plan shall be updated when necessary, and shall include:

• history and existing situation

• a schedule for the progression of conversion

• aspects which shall be changed during conversion

9.1.2.

New plantation forest which has received fertilisers and pest and disease control not permitted by Appendix 1 and 2 of the Basic Standards shall require a conversion period of 3 years.

9.1.3.

The full standards requirements shall be met during the conversion period.

9.1.4.

No conversion period is required in case of natural and plantation forest which has already been fulfilling the full standards for a period exceeding the conversion period stipulated in 9.1.2. This must be supported by documentary evidence.

 

9.2. Environmental Impact

General Principles

Forest management shall conserve biological diversity and its associated values, water resources, soils and unique and fragile ecosystems and landscapes. Such management will maintain the ecological functions and the integrity of the forest.

Aims and Recommendations

Forest management operations shall encourage the efficient use of the forests multiple products and services not only to ensure economic viability but to deliver a wide range of environmental and social benefits.

Standards

9.2.1.

An assessment of environmental impact shall be completed appropriate to the scale, intensity of forest management and the uniqueness of the affected resources and adequately integrated into the management plan. Assessments shall include landscape level considerations as well as the impacts of on-site processing facilities. Environmental impacts shall be assessed prior to commencement of site disturbing operations.

9.2.2.

Safeguards shall exist which protect rare, threatened and endangered species and their habitats (e.g. nesting and feeding areas). Conservation ones and protection areas shall be established appropriate to the scale and intensity of forest management and the uniqueness of the affected resources. Inappropriate hunting, fishing, trapping and collecting shall be prohibited.

9.2.3.

Ecological functions and values shall be maintained intact, enhanced or restored including:

• forest regeneration and succession

• genetic, species and ecosystem diversity

• natural cycles that affect the productivity of the forest ecosystem

9.2.4.

Representative samples of existing ecosystems within the landscape shall be protected in their natural state and recorded on maps.

 

9.3. Maintenance of Natural Forest

 

General Principles

Primary forest, well developed secondary forests and sites of major environmental, social or cultural significance shall be conserved. Such areas may not be replaced by tree plantations or other land uses.

Standards

9.3.1.

Trees planted in natural forest may supplement natural regeneration, fill gaps or contribute to the conservation of genetic resources. Such plantings shall not replace or significantly alter the natural ecosystem.

9.3.2.

The use of replanting as a technique for regenerating stands of certain natural forest types may be appropriate under certain circumstances. The certification body/ standardising organisation will define acceptable intensity and spatial extent of tree planting.

9.3.3.

Where exotic species are introduced e.g. agroforestry, disturbance to the eco system must be kept to the minimum and will be evaluated by the certification body/ standardising organisation.

 

9.4. Plantations

General Principles

Plantations shall be planned and managed in accordance with the other forestry standards. Plantations can provide an array of social and economic benefits and can contribute to satisfying the world’s needs for forest products they should complement the management of, reduce pressures on and promote the restoration and conservation of natural forests.

Standards

9.4.1.

The management objectives of the plantation including natural forest conservation and restoration objectives, shall be explicitly stated in a objectives. In order to enhance the conservation of biological diversity, native species are preferred over exotic species in the establishment of plantations and the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Exotic species which shall be used only when it can be demonstrated that their greater performance will severely imbalance the ecosystem and shall be carefully monitored to detect unusual mortality, disease or insect outbreaks and adverse ecological impacts.

9.4.2.

The design and layout of plantations should promote the protection, restoration and conservation of natural forests, and not increase pressures on natural forests. Wildlife corridors, streamside zones and a mosaic of stands of different ages and rotation periods, shall be used in the layout of the plantation consistent with the scale of the operation. The scale and layout of plantation blocks shall be consistent with the patterns of forest stands found within the natural landscape.

9.4.3.

There shall be sufficient diversity in the composition of plantations so as to enhance economic, ecological and social stability. Such diversity may include the size and spatial distribution of management units within the landscape, number and genetic composition of species, age classes and structures.

9.4.4.

The selection of species for planting shall be based on their overall suitability for the site and their appropriateness to the management objectives. In order to enhance the conservation of biological diversity, native species are preferred over exotic species in the establishment of plantations and the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Exotic species may be introduced only when their performance proves superior to native species and shall be carefully monitored to detect mortality, disease or insect outbreaks and, particularly, adverse ecological impact.

9.4.5.

A proportion of the overall forest management area appropriate to the scale of the plantation and to be determined by the certification body/ standardising organisation shall be managed so as to restore the site to a natural forest cover. This area shall be representative of the total area.

9.4.6.

Measures shall be taken to maintain or improve soil structure, fertility and biological activity. Wit regard to fertilisation chapter 4.4 of the IFOAM Basic Standards applies. With regard to water and soil conservation, chapter 4.7 of the IFOAM Basic Standards applies.

9.4.7.

Measures and shall be taken to prevent and minimise outbreaks of pests, diseases, fire and invasive plant introduction. Only fertiliser and crop protection products found in Appendix 1 & 2 of the IFOAM Basic Standards may be used.

To evaluate whether other products are acceptable, the IFOAM guidelines on evaluation of inputs to organic agriculture shall be applied. The use of fire as a management tool shall be regulated in the management plan. Traditional knowledge on how and when to use fire, shall be taken into account.

9.4.8.

Appropriate to the scale and diversity of the operation, monitoring of plantation shall include regular assessment of on-site and off-site ecological and social impacts e.g. natural regeneration, effects on water resources and soil fertility and impacts on local welfare and social well being. No species shall be planted on a large scale until local trials and/or experience have shown that they are ecologically well adapted to the site, are not invasive and do not have significant negative ecological impacts on other ecosystems. Special attention will be paid to social issues of land acquisition for plantations, especially the protection of local rights of ownership, use or access.

 

9.5. Non Timber Forest Products

General Principles

Non timber forest products are integral parts of the forest ecosystem and should be considered as part of the overall sustainability of the forest.

Standards

9.5.1.

These standards are used in conjunction with 4.8.

9.5.2.

When non timber forest products are taken from a forest the ecological impact hall be assessed avoiding products or harvesting methods which may:

• require the removal of the individual

• affect the species growth or productivity

• detrimental to nutrient cycling

• harmful to wildlife

• be necessary for subsistence use.

When any animal product or by products are being collected, animal welfare shall be taken into consideration.

9.5.3.

Where timber extraction is the priority in forest management, the management plan shall take into consideration the long and short term impact on non timber forest products specifying which products are to be collected.

9.5.4.

Harvesting of non timber forest products shall respect the cultural and religious significance of the forest organisms and products to local and indigenous communities.

9.5.5.

Non timber forest product harvesting methods must be appropriate to the species or species group. Agroforestry is permitted.

Basic Standards Content Page

10. Labelling

 

General Principles

Labelling should convey clear and accurate information on the organic status of the product.

 

Recommendations

When the full standards requirements have been fulfilled, products should be sold as "produce of organic agriculture" or a similar description.

The use of in-conversion labels may be confusing to the consumer and is not recommended.

The name and address of the person or company legally responsible for the production or processing of the product shall be on the label.

Product labels should list processing procedures which influence the product properties in a way not immediately obvious.

Additional product information should be made available on request.

All components of additives and processing aids shall be declared.

Ingredients or products derived from wild production should be declared as such.

 

Standards

10.1.1.

The person or company legally responsible for the production or processing of the product shall be identifiable.

10.1.2.

Products may be labelled as "produce of organic agriculture" or a similar description when produced according to these standards.

10.1.3.

Mixed products where not all ingredients, including additives, are of organic origin may be labelled in the following way (raw material weight):

a. Where a minimum of 95% of the ingredients are of certified organic origin, products may be labelled "certified organic" or similar and should carry the certification mark of the certification body.

b. Where less than 95% but not less than 70% of the ingredients are of certified organic origin, products may not be called "organic". The word "organic" may be used on the principal display in statements like "made with organic ingredients" provided there is a clear statement of the proportion of the organic ingredients. An indication that the product is covered by the certification body may be used, close to the indication of proportion of organic ingredients.

c. Where less than 70% of the ingredients are of certified organic origin, the indication that an ingredient is organic may appear in the ingredient list.

Such product may not be called "organic".

10.1.4.

Added water and salt shall not be included in the percentage calculations of organic ingredients.

10.1.5.

The label for conversion products shall be clearly distinguishable from the label for organic products.

10.1.6.

All raw materials of a multi-ingredient product shall be listed on the product label in order of their weight percentage. It shall be apparent which raw materials are of organic certified origin and which are not. All additives shall be listed with their full name.

If herbs and/or spices constitute less than 2% of the total weight of the product, they may be listed as "spices" or "herbs" without stating the percentage.

11. Social Justice

 

General Principles

Social justice and social rights are an integral part of organic agriculture and processing.

Recommendations

All ILO conventions relating to labour welfare and the UN Charter of Rights for Children should be complied with.

All employees and their families should have access to potable water, food, housing, education, transportation and health services.

Social security needs should be met, including benefits such as maternity, sickness and retirement benefit.

All employees should have equal wages when doing the same job and they must have equal opportunities irrespective of colour, creed and gender.

In all production and processing operations, labour conditions regarding noise, dust, light and exposure to chemicals should be within acceptable limits and workers should have adequate protection.

The rights of indigenous peoples shall be respected.

Standards

11. 1.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall ensure that operators have a policy on social justice.

This standard is applicable for operators with 10 or more persons hired for labour. The certification body/ standardising organisation may allow operators under a state system enforcing social laws not to have such a policy.

11. 2.

Certification Bodies/Standardising organisations shall have a policy on social justice.

11.3.

The certification body/ standardising organisation shall not certify production that is based on violations of basic human rights (in cases of clear social injustice).

Changes approved by the WB following the Urgent Standard revision procedure, 2001-09-24

 

 

section C Appendices

Basic Standards Content Page

Introduction to Appendices

In organic agriculture the maintenance of soil fertility may be achieved through the recycling of organic material whose nutrients are made available to crops through the action of soil micro-organisms and bacteria. Pests, diseases, and weeds can be managed through cultural practices. Organic foods are processed primarily by biological, mechanical, and physical means. The following appendices are used as a guideline for certifiers, and are not intended to be exhaustive or comprehensive. Appendices 1, 2, and 4 are subject to interpretation by certifiers using the evaluation criteria contained in Appendices 3 and 5 of the Basic Standards. Certifiers must use the 6 evaluation criteria described in Appendix 3 to interpret Appendices 1 and 2and the criteria in Appendix 5 to interpret Appendix 4.

Many of these inputs are restricted for use in organic production. In this appendix "restricted" means that the certification body/ standardising organisation shall set the conditions and the procedure for use. Factors such as contamination, risk of nutritional imbalances, importation of inputs from outside the farm, and depletion of natural resources shall be taken into consideration.

 

Revision Procedure for Appendices

Any IFOAM member can request that IFOAM add, delete, or change the status of an input. A member who wants a determination from IFOAM to determine whether or not an input should be permitted for use in organic production or processing may submit a dossier. A dossier addresses all of the IFOAM criteria in Appendices 3 and / or 5 and follows a standardized format developed by the Standards Committee.

Dossiers shall be submitted to the IFOAM Standards Committee when the certification body/ standardising organisation has included the input in their standards.

The IFOAM member who submitted the dossier assumes the risk of the use of the input and is informed that a negative decision may be made by IFOAM.

The Standards Committee reviews the dossier and makes one of four decisions:

  1. Insufficient information. The dossier is returned to the member with a request to provide more information.

  2. Clarification of existing standards. The member is informed that the input is already covered (allowed, restricted, or prohibited) by the IFOAM Basic Standards.

  3. Refer to Experts. The Standards Committee requires the opinion of recognized experts before it can make a decision. The experts provide a recommendation to the Standards Committee. The Standards Committee makes a recommendation.

  4. Recommend Change of Relevant Appendix. The Standards Committee informs the member that the change is recommended by the Standards Committee to be included into the IFOAM Basic Standards. The input then follows the procedure established for changes of the IFOAM Basic Standards. Final decisions and recommendations shall be published in IFOAM's Internal Letter (IL).

Basic Standards Content Page

Appendix 1

Products for Use in Fertilisation and Soil Conditioning

 

  • Farmyard manure, slurry, urine

Restricted

  • Guano

Restricted

  • Source separated human excrement from separated sources which are monitored for contamination (see 4.4.5.)

Restricted

  • Vermicastings

Restricted

  • Blood meal, hoof and horn meal, meat, meat meal, bone, bone meal, feather meal, fish and fish products, wool, fur, hair, dairy products

Restricted

  • Biodegradable processing by-products of microbial, plant or animal origin, e.g. by-products of food, feed, oilseed, brewery, distillery or textile processing.

Restricted

  • Crop and vegetable residues, mulch, green manure, straw
 

  • Wood, bark, sawdust, woodshavings, woodash, wood charcoal from untreated wood

Restricted

  • Seaweed and seaweed products

Restricted

  • Peat (prohibited for soil conditioning)
 

  • Compost made from ingredients listed in this appendix, spent mushroom waste, humus from worms and insects, urban composts from separated sources which are monitored for contamination
 

  • Plant preparations and extracts
 

  • Worms and microbiological preparations based on naturally occurring organisms
 

  • Biodynamic preparations
 

  • Basic slag

Restricted

  • Calcareous and magnesium amendments

Restricted

  • Calcified seaweed
 

  • Limestone, gypsum, marl, maerl, chalk, sugarbeet lime, calcium chloride,
 

  • Magnesium rock, kieserite and epsom salt (magnesium sulphate)
 

  • Mineral potassium (e.g. sulphate of potash, kainit, sylvanite, patentkali)

Restricted

  • Natural phosphates

Restricted

  • Pulverised rock, stone meal

Restricted

  • Clay (e.g. bentonite, perlite, vermiculite, zeolite)
 

  • Sodium Chloride
 

  • Trace elements

Restricted

  • Sulfur
 

Basic Standards Content Page

Appendix 2

Products for Plant Pest and Disease Control, Weed Management and Growth Regulation

  • Algal preparations
 

  • Animal preparations and oils

Restricted

  • Bacterial preparations (e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis)
 

  • Beeswax

Restricted

  • Biodynamic preparations
 

  • Calcium hydroxide
 

  • Carbon dioxide
 

  • Chitin nematicides (natural origin)
 

  • Chloride of lime

Restricted

  • Clay (e.g. bentonite, perlite, vermiculite, zeolite)
 

  • Coffee grounds
 

  • Copper salts (e.g. sulphate, hydroxide, oxychloride, octanoate)

Restricted. Copper usage will be reduced after 2002 to max 8 kg/ha per year (on a rolling average basis), or less according to national laws or private label standards.

  • Corn gluten meal (weed control)
 

  • Dairy products (e.g. milk, casein)
 

  • Diatomaceous earth

Restricted

  • Ethyl alcohol
 

  • Fungal preparations

Restricted

  • Gelatine
 

  • Lecithin
 

  • Light mineral oils (paraffin)

Restricted

  • Lime sulfur (Calcium polysulfide)
 

  • Natural acids (e.g. vinegar)
 

  • Neem (Azadirachta indica)

Restricted

  • Pheromones - in traps and dispensers only
 

  • Physical Methods (e.g. chromatic traps, mechanical traps,)
 

  • Plastic mulches

Restricted

  • Plant oils
 

  • Plant preparations

Restricted

  • Plant based repellents

Restricted

  • Potassium bicarbonate
 

  • Potassium permanganate

Restricted

  • Propolis
 

  • Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium)

Restricted

  • Quassia (Quassia amara)

Restricted

  • Quicklime

Restricted

  • Release of parasites, predators and sterilized insects

Restricted

  • Rontenone (Derris elliptica, Lonchocarpus spp. Thephrosia spp.)
 

  • Ryania (Ryania speciosa)

Restricted

  • Sabadilla
 

  • Seasalt and salty water
 

  • Silicates (e.g. sodium silicates, quartz)
 

  • Soda
 

  • Sodium bicarbonate

Restricted

  • Soft soap
 

  • Sulphur

Restricted

  • Sulfur dioxide

Restricted

  • Tobacco tea (pure nicotine is forbidden)

Restricted

  • Viral preparations (e.g. granulosis virus)

Restricted

Basic Standards Content Page

Appendix 3

Criteria to Evaluate Additional Inputs to Organic Agriculture

Appendices 1 & 2 look at products for fertilisation and plant pest and disease control in organic agriculture. Appendix 3 outlines the procedure to evaluate other inputs into organic production.

The following checklist should be used for amending the permitted substance list for fertilisation and soil conditioning purposes:

and

and

and

The following checklist should be used for amending the permitted substance list for the purpose of plant disease or pest and weed control:

and

and

Introduction

Inputs should be evaluated regularly and weighed against alternatives. This process of regular evaluation should result in organic production becoming ever more friendly to humans, animals, the environment and the ecosystem.

The following criteria should be used for evaluation of additional inputs to organic agriculture.

 

1. Necessity

Each input must be necessary. This will be investigated n the context in which the product will be used.

Arguments to prove the necessity of an input may be drawn from such criteria as yield, product quality, environmental safety, ecological protection, landscape, human and animal welfare.

The use of an input may be restricted to:

2. Nature and Way of Production

Nature

The origin of the input should usually be (in order of preference):

Non-natural products which are chemically synthesised and identical to natural products may be used.

When there is any choice, renewable inputs are preferred. The next best choice is inputs of mineral origin and the third choice is inputs which are chemically identical to natural products. There may be ecological, technical or economic arguments to take into consideration in the allowance of chemically identical inputs.

Way of Production

The ingredients of the inputs may undergo the following processes:

Collection

The collection of the raw materials comprising the input must not affect the stability of the natural habitat nor affect the maintenance of any species within the collection area.

3. Environment

Environmental Safety

The input must not be harmful or have a lasting negative impact on the environment. Nor should the input give rise to unacceptable pollution of surface or ground water, air or soil. All stages during processing, use and breakdown must be evaluated.

The following characteristics of the input must be taken into account:

Degradability

All inputs must be degradable to CO2, H2O, and/or to their mineral form.

Inputs with a high acute toxicity to non-target organisms should have a maximum half-life of five days.

Natural substances used as inputs which are not considered toxic do not need to be degradable within a limited time.

Acute toxicity to non-target organisms

When inputs have a relatively high acute toxicity for non-target organisms, restrictions for their use is needed. Measures have to be taken to guarantee the survival of these non-target organisms. Maximum amounts allowed for application may be set. When it is not possible to take adequate measures, the use of the input must not be allowed.

 

 

Long-term chronic toxicity

Inputs which accumulate in organisms or systems of organisms and inputs which have, or are suspected of having, mutagenic or carcinogenic properties must not be used. If there are any risks, sufficient measures have to be taken to reduce any risk to an acceptable level and to prevent long lasting negative environmental effects.

Chemically synthesised products and heavy metals

Inputs should not contain harmful amounts of man made chemicals (xenobiotic products). Chemically synthesised products may be accepted only if nature identical.

Mineral inputs should contain as few heavy metals as possible. Due to the lack of any alternative, and long-standing, traditional use in organic agriculture, copper and copper salts are an exception for the time being. The use of copper in any form in organic agriculture must be seen, however, as temporary and use must be restricted with regard to environmental impact.

 

4. Human Health and Quality

Human Health

Inputs must not be harmful to human health. All stages during processing, use and degradation must be taken into account. Measures must be taken to reduce any risks and standards set for inputs used in organic production.

Product quality

Inputs must not have negative effects on the quality of the product - e.g. taste, keeping quality, visual quality.

5. Ethical Aspects - Animal Welfare

Inputs must not have a negative influence on the natural behaviour or physical functioning of animals kept at the farm.

6. Socio Economic Aspects

Consumers’ perception: Inputs should not meet resistance or opposition of consumers of organic products. An input might be considered by consumers to be unsafe to the environment or human health, although this has not been scientifically proven. Inputs should not interfere with a general feeling or opinion about what is natural or organic - e.g. genetic engineering

Basic Standards Content Page

Appendix 4

List of Approved Ingredients of Non Agricultural Origin and Processing Aids Used in Food Processing

Food Additives and Carriers

Int’l Numbering System

Product

Product Group*

Limitation / Note*

INS 170

Calcium carbonate

GA

 

INS 220

Sulphur dioxide

W

 

INS 224

Potassium metabisulphite

W

 

INS 270

Lactic acid

FV

Concentrated fruit / veg. juice & fermented veg. products

INS 290

Carbon dioxide

GA

 

INS 300

Ascorbic acid

FV

If not available in natural form

INS 306

Tocopheroles, mixed natural concentrates

GA

 

INS 322

Lecithin

GA

Obtained without use of bleaches and organic solvents

INS 330

Citric acid

FV

Concentrated fruit / veg. juice jam, fermented veg. prod.

   

W

Restricted to 1 gm/l

INS 331

Sodium citrates

ME

 

INS 332

Potassium citrates

ME

 

INS 333

Calcium citrates

ME

 

INS 334

Tartaric acid

W

 

INS 335

Sodium tartrate

CO/CB

 

INS 336

Potassium tartrate

C/CO/CB

 

INS 341

Mono calcium phosphate

C

For raising flour only

INS 342

Ammonium phosphate

W

Restricted to 0.3 gm/l

INS 406

Agar

GA

 

INS 407

Carrageenan

GA

 

INS 410

Locust bean gum

GA

 

INS 412

Guar gum

GA

 

INS 413

Tragacanth gum

GA

 

INS 414

Arabic gum

MI/F/CO

 

INS 415

Xanthan gum

F/FV/CB/

 

INS 440

Pectin

GA

Unmodified

INS 500

Sodium carbonates

CO/CB

 

INS 501

Potassium carbonates

C/CO/CB

 

INS 503

Ammonium carbonates

C/CO/CB

 

INS 504

Magnesium carbonates

C/CO/CB

 

INS 508

Potassium chloride

FV/

Only frozen & canned fruit/veg., veg. sauces, ketchup, mustard

INS 509

Calcium chloride

MI/F/FV/SO

 

INS 511

Magnesium chloride

SO

 

INS 516

Calcium sulphate

CB/SO

 
   

C

Only in bakers' yeast

INS 517

Ammonium sulphate

W

Restricted to 0.3 gm/l

INS 938

Argon

GA

 

INS 941

Nitrogen

GA

 

INS 948

Oxygen

GA

 

* Product groups and limitations are recommendations to certification bodies/ standardising organisations

Flavouring Agents

Preparations of Micro-organisms (see also 7.3)

Processing Aids and Other Products

Int’l Numbering System

Product

Product Group*

Limitation / Note*

INS 170

Calcium carbonate

GA

 

INS 181

Tannin

W

 

INS 184

Tannic Acid

W

Filtration aid

INS 220

Sulphur dioxide

W

 

INS 270

Lactic acid

ME

 

INS 290

Carbon dioxide

GA

 

INS 322

Lecithin

CO/CB

Greasing agent

INS 501

Potassium carbonate

FV/W

 

INS 513

Sulphuric acid

S

pH adjustment of water

INS 516

Calcium sulphate

GA

Coagulation agent

INS 524

Sodium hydroxide

S

 

INS 334-7

Tartaric acid & salts

W

 

INS 500

Sodium carbonate

S

 

INS 511

Magnesium chloride

SO

For soybean products

INS 551

Silicon dioxide

W//FV

As gel or colloidal solution

INS 553

Talc

GA

 

INS 901

Beeswax

GA

 

INS 903

Carnauba wax

GA

 

INS 941

Nitrogen

GA

 
 

Activated carbon

GA

 
 

Asbestos free filter materials

GA

 
 

Bentonite

FV/W

 
 

Casein

W

 
 

Diatomaceous earth

S/FV

 
 

Egg white albumen

W

 
 

Ethanol

GA

 
 

Gelatine

FV/W

 
 

Isinglass

W

 
 

Kaolin

GA

 
 

Perlite

GA

 
 

Preparations of bark

S

 
 

Vegetable oils

GA

 

* Product groups and limitations are recommendations to certification bodies/ standardising organisations

Preparations of Micro-organisms and Enzymes

These may be used as processing aids with approval based on the IFOAM Procedure to Evaluate Additives and Processing Aids for Organic Food Products.

Key - list of abbreviations used in above tables:

GA - generally unrestricted

M - milk products

F - fat products

ME - meat products

C - cereal products

FV - fruit/vegetable products

W – wine

S – sugar

CO - confectionery

CB - cakes and biscuits

 

SO - soybean products

Ingredients

Basic Standards Content Page

Appendix 5

Criteria for the Evaluation of Additives

and Processing Aids for Organic Food Products

Introduction

Additives are substances which are added to a product which affects its inherent qualities. Processing aids are substances not consumed as food ingredients themselves intentionally used in the processing of raw materials, food or food ingredients to fulfil a certain technological purpose during treatment or processing and which may result in the unavoidable presence of residues or derivatives in the final product. For the purpose of this guideline flavouring agents, colours or other substances added to food for maintaining or improving quality are included.

The following aspects and criteria should be used for evaluation of additives and processing aids in organic food products.

1. Necessity

Additives and processing aids can only be allowed in organic food products if each additive or processing aid is essential to the production and:

2. Criteria for the Approval of Additives and Processing Aids

3. Step by Step Procedure for the use of Additives and Processing Aids

1. Instead of using additives or processing aids, the preferred choice is:

2. The second choice is:

3. In organic food products the following categories of additives and processing aids are not allowed:

Carriers and preservatives used in the preparation of additives and processing aids must also be taken into consideration.